White Papers



1. Flow Assurance in Integrated Asset Modelling
Authors: Rubakumar Sankararaj (Stochastic Simulation Ltd) | Shoaib Memon (Stochastic Simulation Ltd) | Priyanka Jagadip (Stochastic Simulation Ltd) | Andrew Wadsley (Stochastic Simulation Ltd)

Integrated Asset Management (IAM) solutions provides an excellent platform for combining data from multiple sources (subsurface to markets). The level of detail incorporated in such models determines the usefulness of such tools in reservoir management. The integrated modelling tools can be as simple as combining decline profiles to very detailed 3D numerical simulation models coupled to thermodynamic pipelines and facility network with risk management logic represented externally. This study makes an effort to address the issue of differentiating flow assurance models from forecasting tools. The advantages of using IAM tools with optimal detail for questions faced by an engineer are discussed through a real field application. Read Full Paper.

2. Integrated Asset Modelling for Gas Master Planning Thesis
Author: Luke Ellery (School of Mechanical & Chemical Engineering, University of Western Australia). – Free PDF Download of Thesis

Gas Master Plans (GMPs) conventionally use spreadsheets, netback analyses and consider little engineering detail to determine the gas resource allocation. This overlooks synergies between industries, overestimates supply and makes high level assumptions that are shown to have significant effects on the allocation. A potential alternative to these methods is the use of an integrated asset model (IAM).

This paper considers a case study of five fields that were modelled using GasAssure, an IAM, using exponential decline curves to model the production potential. The effect of the liquefied natural gas’s (LNG’s) composition, a factor presently overlooked, was found to have a significant impact on the allocation to other industries. Components, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), were tracked in the IAM with efforts undertaken to maximise their utilisation to reduce flaring.

The results indicate that IAMs are able to compare gas allocation scenarios and present an optimal portfolio of gas-utilising industries in a way that current methods are unable to replicate. The correct use of IAMs for GMPs will give life to industries previously overlooked, greater economic growth through increased domestic gas utilisation, and more accurate reports that can be relied upon for subsequent development plans.

3. Integration of Multi-Functional Disciplines to Optimally Develop a Greenfield Gas Development Project.
Authors: Iman Sunhaji (Exxon Mobil Corp.) | William C. Gorden (Exxon Mobil Corporation) | Khadijah Khalid (ExxonMobil E&P Malaysia Inc.) | Alex Liew (ExxonMobil) | Scott Jaynes (ExxonMobil)

A multidisciplinary teamwork approach has been taken to plan the development and execution of a greenfield gas project offshore Peninsular Malaysia. Domestic demand for gas in Peninsular Malaysia remains strong mainly to fuel growing electricity demand. Timely execution of the T Gas Development project is critical to supplementing declining capacity from existing developed fields and ensuring the ability to meet gas supply obligations. This paper was prepared for presentation at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, 26-28 March, Beijing, China.  – Read Full SPE Paper.

4. Advanced Integrated Field Modelling Approach in Development Planning and Management of Giant Gas Condensate Field
Authors: O. Tleukhabyluly (KPO b.v.) | G. Mutaliyev (KPO b.v.) | A. Abdibapov (KPO b.v.)

Over 60 % of the world’s daily oil production today comes from giant fields, where production is on decline (Robelius, 2007). Extended development and management of such complex projects would require integrated and cost efficient approach. Read Full SPE Paper.

5. Integrated Production Forecasting for Business Planning
Authors: Peter Obidike (Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Ltd.) | Chima Emelle (Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Ltd.) | Rene Vlaardingerbroek (Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Ltd.)

Field development planning activities depend on realistic oil and gas production forecasts which are a key input to project economics and subsequently influence business decisions. Several tools and approaches to the generation of these production forecasts exists ranging from simple spreadsheets to complex 3D reservoir models hooked up to surface network models in an integrated production system approach. Read Full SPE Paper.

6. Gas Market and Contract Management in Integrated Corporate Production Forecasting
Authors: Peter Obidike (Shell Petroleum Development Company) | Adeyanju Sakiru (Shell Petroleum Development Company)

Gas development projects usually commence from the confirmation of availability of gas markets and contracts before the development planning studies can be initiated. The gas contracts typically feature penalties (“take-or-pay” and related clauses) for not meeting the demand or non acceptance of delivered gas.

With increase in gas demand to meet both export and domestic gas obligations in Nigeria, Companies rely on a robust production forecasting platform to predict and manage the performance of their subsurface assets in a bid to meet those obligations. Read Full SPE Paper.

7. Making the Best of Integrated Asset Modelling
Authors: Sodi Toby, SPE, Eta Energy Solutions

Integrated Asset Modelling has now become a standard means of modelling entire oil and gas facilities with a view to optimising existing facilities or developing new ones. Despite many operators owning numerous integrated asset models (IAMs), the full benefits of such models are not always realized. In a lot of situations, there is a lack of confidence in the accuracy of the results or in the ability to analyse the results and apply them to day to day development, operational and maintenance decisions. Read Full SPE Paper.

8. Effective Reservoir Simulation of the McKee Field, New Zealand
Authors: A.W. Wadsley (Optimiser Consulting) | M.R. Adams (Fletcher Challenge Energy Canada) | L.R. Stoltz (Fletcher Challenge Energy Canada) | M.S. Jones (Fletcher Challenge Energy Canada)

This paper was prepared for presentation at the 1998 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition held in New Orleans, Louisiana, 27-30 September 1998. Read Full SPE Paper.

9. Total Asset Management Strategy for the McKee Field, New Zealand
Authors: M.R. Adams (Fletcher Challenge Energy) | L.R. Stoltz (Fletcher Challenge Energy) | A.W. Wadsley (Exploration & Production Consultants Pty Ltd.)

The McKee Field, onshore New Zealand, was brought to commercial production during 1984 at 5000 BOPD. Production peaked at 12,000 BOPD in 1989 and was followed by a rapid decline over the next three years to 6000 BOPD at the end of 1992. Read Full SPE Paper.

10. Probabilistic Reserves Assessment Using A Filtered Monte Carlo Method In A Fractured Limestone Reservoir
Authors: L.R. Stoltz (Fletcher Challenge Energy Taranaki) | M.S. Jones (Fletcher Challenge Energy Canada) | A.W. Wadsley (Optimiser Consulting)

This paper was prepared for presentation at the 1998 SPE Asia Pacific Conference on Integrated Modelling for Asset Management held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 23-24 March 1998. Read Full SPE Paper.

11. The Construction of Curvilinear Co-ordinate Grid Systems for Reservoir Simulation
Authors: W.I. Ferguson (International Petroleum Engineering Consultants Ltd.) | A.W. Wadsley (International Petroleum Engineering Consultants Ltd.)

The construction of optimally orthogonal grid systems has, in the past, been a somewhat ad-hoc procedure. In this paper, several new methods of deriving grid systems for full field and symmetry (production) clement, curvilinear models are described. The basis of the approach to constructing full field curvilinear models assumes that the engineer has identified those aspects of the reservoir geometry to which the simulation grid will correlate or conform. The “primary” and “secondary” grid lines to the orthogonal grid typically should conform to various geological features such as faults, reservoir boundries, formation top and/or bottom depth contours and fluid contacts. The methods described to construct full field grids include:  Read Full SPE Paper.

12. Use Of Boundary Element Methods For Stochastic Optimisation Of Gas Field Deliverability
Authors: A.W. Wadsley (Exploration and Production Consultants Limited)

Optimum gas delivery contracts are those which maximize gas production whilst minimizing penalties caused by insufficient well capacity to meet contracted demand. The method of stochastic simulation is described for predicting seasonal and daily gas demand together with techniques derived from the boundary element method for the modelling of reservoir deliverability performance. These two methodologies are combined to give a robust procedure for the nomination of contractual gas delivery quantities. Read Full SPE Paper.